Primula officinalis L. HILL.   Family: Primulaceae 


common cowslip, primrose


DESCRIPTION: The herb is a perennial herbaceous plant. Rhizome is short, fleshy, rough, unbranched. Roots are numerous, thin, long shnurovidni, tan. Flowering stem is leafless, covered with rare hairs coming out of the middle of the leaf rosette. Leaves collected in the rosette. They are large, dull, serrated suddenly narrowed to handle broad wings. Flowers are with stems relatively large (up to 2 cm in diameter), golden yellow, collected in a country bent, wrapped at the base of several green samll leaves. The fruit is brown box. Blooms in March-May, and in the mountains and later.


DISTRIBUTION: Almost throughout Europe, temperate regions of Asia, European part of Russia.


PARTS USED MEDICINALLY: Flowers, rhizomes with roots and leaves. The leaves are harvested fresh in March-May. The flowers are harvested in March-June Berat only FLOWERS without flowering stem. Picking is done at the beginning of flowering, not waiting for their full blooming and overblown. Do not pick  not bloomed flowers because it would reduce the amount of phytochemicals. The roots are harvested from May to June.
The roots contain 4.1 to 12.5% of haemolytic saponins index generally between 5000 and 7000. The drug contains less essential oil. The leaves contain up to 2% saponins. All organs of the plant contain a significant amount of ascorbic acid.


MEDICINAL ACTION AND USES: The cowslip was known as a medical plant since the ancient Greeks. Rhizomes with roots have anti cough effect used for removing the secretions inflammation of in the respiratory system (bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, colds), as well as a weak diuretic and diaphoretic herb for  stimulating metabolism: 1 tablespoon (about 5 d) finely chopped roots with rhizomes pour 1 cup water, allow to boil for 10 minutes, strain, sweeten with sugar or honey and take 1 tbsp 4-5 times a day before meals.


The flowers are used in folk medicine against neuroses and insomnia: about 10g chopped dried flowers poured with 1 cup boiling water and then let it cool and strain. Take 1-2 tablespoons at bedtime.


Fresh leaves in many countries are used for making spring salad. It is very useful taking into account that in early spring the body is in need of vitamins after the winter, and there are no other plants that are rich in vitamins yet available.


Source pic: Jeffdelonge at fr.wikipedia Later versions were uploaded by Tournachon at fr.wikipedia