Sambucus ebulus L. Family: Caprifoliaceae (Adoxaceae)
Danewort, dane weed, danesblood, dwarf elder, european dwarf elder, walewort, elderwort, blood hilder
DESCRIPTION: Perennial plant. Central root is highly developed, large, thick, and on his neck sideways out side rhizomes. Stems are annuals, erect, grooved, up to 2 m tall, branched, green, almost naked, white heart. The leaves are opposite, imparipinnate collected 3-9 total handle. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, pointed, with sharp shares with lanceolate stipules. The flowers are white or reddish, collected in large, flat thyroid panicle at the top of the stem.
They have weak smell resembling almonds. Calyx with 5. Stamens are 3 to 5. The fruit is dark blue or reddish spherical juicy fruit with three brown seeds, with insipid, sweetish taste and a heavy smell of elderberries. Seeds are elliptical in shape, with a longitudinal groove, to 3 mm long and 2 mm wide. Blooms in July – July and the fruits ripen in September. It gives abundant fruits almost every year.
DISTRIBUTION: Throughout Europe, North Africa, Persia and others. It grows through forests, fields, bushes, rivers, streams and elsewhere across the country, mainly in the plains and hilly areas with sufficient moisture to 1400 m altitude.
USABLE PART: roots in October-November and the fruits in September-October
The roots contain bitter substances not yet completely specified composition, saponins, tannins.
The leaves contain essential oil with an unpleasant odor, a bitter substance yet unspecified and probably a glucoside. Clusters contain up to 2.4% sucrose, up 2.6 percent invert sugar and a negligible amount of essential oil. Also contains a glucoside of which under the action of the ferment was removed emulzin hydrocyanic acid.
The fruits contain essential oil, tannins. The seeds also contain essential oils. The bark of the branches contain ferment emulzin, bitter substances and others.
USES: The roots are used for treating inflammation of the bladder. Since all parts of the plant are somewhat poisonous, should be used only under medical supervision, starting with small doses. In larger doses the herb causes vomiting and diarrhea.
A decoction of the flowers is used in folk medicine for sweating and difficult urination. Chopped fresh leaves are applied in folk medicine against the bite of snakes, spiders, stung by wasps, mosquitoes, etc .: the fresh leaves are rubbed on the bite or sting place until it begins to bleed.